Rule 12 – Defenses and objections
(through July 14, 2022)
(a) Time to Serve a Responsive Pleading. (1) In General. Unless another time is specified by this rule or a federal statute, the time for serving a responsive pleading is as follows: (A) A defendant must serve an answer: (i) within 21 days after being served with the summons and complaint; or (ii) if it has timely waived service under Rule 4(d), within 60 days after the request for a waiver was sent, or within 90 days after it was sent to the defendant outside any judicial district of the United States. (B) A party must serve an answer to a counterclaim or crossclaim within 21 days after being served with the pleading that states the counterclaim or crossclaim. (C) A party must serve a reply to an answer within 21 days after being served with an order to reply, unless the order specifies a different time. (2) United States and Its Agencies, Officers, or Employees Sued in an Official Capacity. The United States, a United States agency, or a United States officer or employee sued only in an official capacity must serve an answer to a complaint, counterclaim, or crossclaim within 60 days after service on the United States attorney. (3) United States Officers or Employees Sued in an Individual Capacity. A United States officer or employee sued in an individual capacity for an act or omission occurring in connection with duties performed on the United States’ behalf must serve an answer to a complaint, counterclaim, or crossclaim within 60 days after service on the officer or employee or service on the United States attorney, whichever is later. (4) Effect of a Motion. Unless the court sets a different time, serving a motion under this rule alters these periods as follows: (A) if the court denies the motion or postpones its disposition until trial, the responsive pleading must be served within 14 days after notice of the court’s action; or (B) if the court grants a motion for a more definite statement, the responsive pleading must be served within 14 days after the more definite statement is served.
(b) How to Present Defenses. Every defense to a claim for relief in any pleading must be asserted in the responsive pleading if one is required. But a party may assert the following defenses by motion: (1) lack of subject-matter jurisdiction; (2) lack of personal jurisdiction; (3) improper venue; (4) insufficient process; (5) insufficient service of process; (6) failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted; and (7) failure to join a party under Rule 19. A motion asserting any of these defenses must be made before pleading if a responsive pleading is allowed. If a pleading sets out a claim for relief that does not require a responsive pleading, an opposing party may assert at trial any defense to that claim. No defense or objection is waived by joining it with one or more other defenses or objections in a responsive pleading or in a motion.
(c) Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings. After the pleadings are closed—but early enough not to delay trial—a party may move for judgment on the pleadings.
(d) Result of Presenting Matters Outside the Pleadings. If, on a motion under Rule 12(b)(6) or 12(c), matters outside the pleadings are presented to and not excluded by the court, the motion must be treated as one for summary judgment under Rule 56. All parties must be given a reasonable opportunity to present all the material that is pertinent to the motion.
(e) Motion for a More Definite Statement. A party may move for a more definite statement of a pleading to which a responsive pleading is allowed but which is so vague or ambiguous that the party cannot reasonably prepare a response. The motion must be made before filing a responsive pleading and must point out the defects complained of and the details desired. If the court orders a more definite statement and the order is not obeyed within 14 days after notice of the order or within the time the court sets, the court may strike the pleading or issue any other appropriate order.
(f) Motion to Strike. The court may strike from a pleading an insufficient defense or any redundant, immaterial, impertinent, or scandalous matter. The court may act: (1) on its own; or (2) on motion made by a party either before responding to the pleading or, if a response is not allowed, within 21 days after being served with the pleading.
(g) Joining Motions. (1) Right to Join. A motion under this rule may be joined with any other motion allowed by this rule. (2) Limitation on Further Motions. Except as provided in Rule 12(h)(2) or (3), a party that makes a motion under this rule must not make another motion under this rule raising a defense or objection that was available to the party but omitted from its earlier motion.
(h) Waiving and Preserving Certain Defenses. (1) When Some Are Waived. A party waives any defense listed in Rule 12(b)(2)–(5) by: (A) omitting it from a motion in the circumstances described in Rule 12(g)(2); or (B) failing to either: (i) make it by motion under this rule; or (ii) include it in a responsive pleading or in an amendment allowed by Rule 15(a)(1) as a matter of course. (2) When to Raise Others. Failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, to join a person required by Rule 19(b), or to state a legal defense to a claim may be raised: (A) in any pleading allowed or ordered under Rule 7(a); (B) by a motion under Rule 12(c); or (C) at trial. (3) Lack of Subject-Matter Jurisdiction. If the court determines at any time that it lacks subject-matter jurisdiction, the court must dismiss the action.
(i) Hearing Before Trial. If a party so moves, any defense listed in Rule 12(b)(1)–(7)—whether made in a pleading or by motion—and a motion under Rule 12(c) must be heard and decided before trial unless the court orders a deferral until trial.
Selected Committee Notes
Rule 12(a)(3)(B) is added to complement the addition of Rule 4(i)(2)(B). The purposes that underlie the requirement that service be made on the United States in an action that asserts individual liability of a United States officer or employee for acts occurring in connection with the performance of duties on behalf of the United States also require that the time to answer be extended to 60 days. Time is needed for the United States to determine whether to provide representation to the defendant officer or employee. If the United States provides representation, the need for an extended answer period is the same as in actions against the United States, a United States agency, or a United States officer sued in an official capacity.
An action against a former officer or employee of the United States is covered by subparagraph (3)(B) in the same way as an action against a present officer or employee. Termination of the relationship between the individual defendant and the United States does not reduce the need for additional time to answer.
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Key Civ Pro Laws (MBE/MEE)
- Section 1291 – Final decisions of district courts
- Section 1292 – Interlocutory decisions
- Section 1331 – Federal question
- Section 1332 – Diversity
- Section 1335 – Interpleader
- Section 1338 – Intellectual Property
- Section 1359 – Parties collusively joined or made
- Section 1367 – Supplemental jurisdiction
- Section 1391 – Venue generally
- Section 1397 – Interpleader
- Section 1404 – Change of venue
- Section 1406 – Cure or waiver of defects
- Section 1407 – Multidistrict litigation
- Section 1441 – Removal generally
- Section 1446 – Removal procedure
- Section 1447 – Post-removal procedure
- Section 1738 – Full faith and credit
- Section 1870 – Challenges
- Section 2072 – Rules of procedure and evidence; power to subscribe
- Section 2361 – Process and procedure
- Rule 3 – Commencing an action
- Rule 4 – Summons
- Rule 6 – Computing and extending time
- Rule 7 – Pleadings allowed
- Rule 8 – General pleading rules
- Rule 9 – Pleading special matters
- Rule 10 – Form of pleadings
- Rule 11 – Signing pleadings, motions, and other papers
- Rule 12 – Defenses and objections
- Rule 13 – Counterclaim and crossclaim
- Rule 14 – Third-party practice
- Rule 15 – Amended and supplemental pleadings
- Rule 16 – Pretrial conferences, scheduling, management
- Rule 19 – Required joinder of parties
- Rule 20 – Permissive joinder of parties
- Rule 22 – Interpleader
- Rule 23 – Class actions
- Rule 24 – Intervention
- Rule 25 – Substitution
- Rule 26 – Duty to disclose
- Rule 30 – Depositions by oral examination
- Rule 31 – Depositions by written questions
- Rule 33 – Interrogatories
- Rule 34 – Producing documents, electronically stored information, and tangible things
- Rule 35 – Physical and mental examinations
- Rule 36 – Requests for admission
- Rule 37 – Failure to make disclosures or to cooperate in discovery
- Rule 38 – Right to a jury trial
- Rule 41 – Dismissal of actions
- Rule 42 – Consolidation; separate trials
- Rule 45 – Subpoena
- Rule 47 – Selecting jurors
- Rule 48 – Number of jurors; verdict; polling
- Rule 49 – Special verdict; general verdict and questions
- Rule 50 – Judgment as a matter of law in a jury trial
- Rule 51 – Instructions to the jury; objections; preserving a claim of error
- Rule 52 – Findings and conclusions by the court; judgment on partial findings
- Rule 54 – Judgment, costs
- Rule 55 – Default
- Rule 56 – Summary judgment
- Rule 59 – New trial; altering or amending a judgment
- Rule 60 – Relief from a judgment or order
- Rule 65 – Injunctions and restraining orders