Rule 13 – Counterclaim and crossclaim
(a) Compulsory Counterclaim. (1) In General. A pleading must state as a counterclaim any claim that—at the time of its service—the pleader has against an opposing party if the claim: (A) arises out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the opposing party’s claim; and (B) does not require adding another party over whom the court cannot acquire jurisdiction. (2) Exceptions. The pleader need not state the claim if: (A) when the action was commenced, the claim was the subject of another pending action; or (B) the opposing party sued on its claim by attachment or other process that did not establish personal jurisdiction over the pleader on that claim, and the pleader does not assert any counterclaim under this rule.
(b) Permissive Counterclaim. A pleading may state as a counterclaim against an opposing party any claim that is not compulsory.
(c) Relief Sought in a Counterclaim. A counterclaim need not diminish or defeat the recovery sought by the opposing party. It may request relief that exceeds in amount or differs in kind from the relief sought by the opposing party.
(d) Counterclaim Against the United States. These rules do not expand the right to assert a counterclaim—or to claim a credit—against the United States or a United States officer or agency.
(e) Counterclaim Maturing or Acquired After Pleading. The court may permit a party to file a supplemental pleading asserting a counterclaim that matured or was acquired by the party after serving an earlier pleading.
(f) [Abrogated. ]
(g) Crossclaim Against a Coparty. A pleading may state as a crossclaim any claim by one party against a coparty if the claim arises out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the original action or of a counterclaim, or if the claim relates to any property that is the subject matter of the original action. The crossclaim may include a claim that the coparty is or may be liable to the crossclaimant for all or part of a claim asserted in the action against the crossclaimant.
(h) Joining Additional Parties. Rules 19 and 20 govern the addition of a person as a party to a counterclaim or crossclaim.
(i) Separate Trials; Separate Judgments. If the court orders separate trials under Rule 42(b), it may enter judgment on a counterclaim or crossclaim under Rule 54(b) when it has jurisdiction to do so, even if the opposing party’s claims have been dismissed or otherwise resolved.
Selected Committee Notes
Rule 13(f) is deleted as largely redundant and potentially misleading. An amendment to add a counterclaim will be governed by Rule 15. Rule 15(a)(1) permits some amendments to be made as a matter of course or with the opposing party’s written consent. When the court’s leave is required, the reasons described in Rule 13(f) for permitting amendment of a pleading to add an omitted counterclaim sound different from the general amendment standard in Rule 15(a)(2), but seem to be administered—as they should be—according to the same standard directing that leave should be freely given when justice so requires. The independent existence of Rule 13(f) has, however, created some uncertainty as to the availability of relation back of the amendment under Rule 15(c). See 6 C. Wright, A. Miller & M. Kane, Federal Practice & Procedure: Civil 2d, §1430 (1990). Deletion of Rule 13(f) ensures that relation back is governed by the tests that apply to all other pleading amendments.
Key Civ Pro Laws (MBE/MEE)
- Section 1291 – Final decisions of district courts
- Section 1292 – Interlocutory decisions
- Section 1331 – Federal question
- Section 1332 – Diversity
- Section 1335 – Interpleader
- Section 1338 – Intellectual Property
- Section 1359 – Parties collusively joined or made
- Section 1367 – Supplemental jurisdiction
- Section 1391 – Venue generally
- Section 1397 – Interpleader
- Section 1404 – Change of venue
- Section 1406 – Cure or waiver of defects
- Section 1407 – Multidistrict litigation
- Section 1441 – Removal generally
- Section 1446 – Removal procedure
- Section 1447 – Post-removal procedure
- Section 1738 – Full faith and credit
- Section 1870 – Challenges
- Section 2072 – Rules of procedure and evidence; power to subscribe
- Section 2361 – Process and procedure
- Rule 3 – Commencing an action
- Rule 4 – Summons
- Rule 6 – Computing and extending time
- Rule 7 – Pleadings allowed
- Rule 8 – General pleading rules
- Rule 9 – Pleading special matters
- Rule 11 – Signing pleadings, motions, and other papers
- Rule 12 – Defenses and objections
- Rule 13 – Counterclaim and crossclaim
- Rule 14 – Third-party practice
- Rule 15 – Amended and supplemental pleadings
- Rule 16 – Pretrial conferences, scheduling, management
- Rule 19 – Required joinder of parties
- Rule 20 – Permissive joinder of parties
- Rule 22 – Interpleader
- Rule 23 – Class actions
- Rule 24 – Intervention
- Rule 26 – Duty to disclose
- Rule 30 – Depositions by oral examination
- Rule 31 – Depositions by written questions
- Rule 33 – Interrogatories
- Rule 34 – Producing documents, electronically stored information, and tangible things
- Rule 35 – Physical and mental examinations
- Rule 36 – Requests for admission
- Rule 37 – Failure to make disclosures or to cooperate in discovery
- Rule 38 – Right to a jury trial
- Rule 41 – Dismissal of actions
- Rule 42 – Consolidation; separate trials
- Rule 45 – Subpoena
- Rule 47 – Selecting jurors
- Rule 48 – Number of jurors; verdict; polling
- Rule 49 – Special verdict; general verdict and questions
- Rule 50 – Judgment as a matter of law in a jury trial
- Rule 51 – Instructions to the jury; objections; preserving a claim of error
- Rule 52 – Findings and conclusions by the court; judgment on partial findings
- Rule 54 – Judgment, costs
- Rule 55 – Default
- Rule 56 – Summary judgment
- Rule 59 – New trial; altering or amending a judgment
- Rule 60 – Relief from a judgment or order
- Rule 65 – Injunctions and restraining orders